What happens if you touched a very moldy orange? Does it affect you in some kind, or the area around it?
well, depends on the mold. Some mold is more hazardous to humans than others and/or takes more readily to growing on/in humans.
Generally speaking, there are two sources of risk: contact to skin and transfer to mouth leading to ingestion, and inhalation of spores or other mold parts which get suspended into the air when disturbed. Each of those routes has the potential to lead to the mold growing within the moister portions of the human body (an infection of sorts), but are generally fairly low risk events.
Not something you should do a lot or go out of your way to make happen, but also not the end of the world if they do happen. Don't go breathing the air around the moldy bits when you clean it up, and wash your hands afterward, and trust in luck. Not very common to get sick from dealing with the occasional moldy bits here and there. A big infestation in your basement, though, could be an issue. You don't want mold establishing itself in your lungs. That would be pretty nasty.
Uhm if it was the skin I'm sure you're fine.
Also depends how "moldy" it is..
But if it wasn't the skin.. It'll depend how your skin will react to the strong acid...